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Frequently Asked Questions

The extruded aluminum frames we use are engineered to provide extremely high strength-to-weight ratios for efficient utilization of materials and maximum performance. 
The extruded aluminum frames we use are engineered to provide extremely high strength-to-weight ratios for efficient utilization of materials and maximum performance.

Through computer aided design and 3-D imaging technologies, we make the strongest, most efficient and imaginative support frames available. The optimum choice of framing materials for a given project depends on the relationship among awning fabric materials, graphic techniques, desired shape and structural requirements. All Cities Signs is highly skilled in fabricating both steel and aluminum. We are in a unique position to advise you on your selection of framing materials, optimize your structural design, aesthetic issues, installation techniques and development of specifications.

Steel Stitch Frame System

Staple awnings revolutionized the fabric awning industry by replacing needle and tread with steel staples (hence the name "Steel Stitch"). Bluegrass Awning Company is an authorized Steel Stitch manufacturer. All Cities Signs Steel Stitch frame is made of lightweight, square aluminum extrusions that have an open channel on one side, with a thin, aluminum webbing in the center. The selected awning fabric is then cut to size, then stapled (with a pneumatic stapler) directly to the aluminum channel inside the extrusion. Excess fabric is then trimmed and a color coordinated PVC trim bead is driven into the channel, covering the staples. This process creates an incredibly, drum-tight awning cover with no sewn seams to rot and separate and no laces or grommets to show underneath the awning. Panels can be replaced individually if damaged. The aluminum frame doesn’t rust like steel and allows unlimited design freedom. And because the fabric does not need to be handled under a swing machine but is applied directly to the frame, there are more fabric options - specially coated fabrics can be used without the complicated problems often associated with them.

Lace and Grommet System with Steel Frame

All Cities Signs utilizes traditional lace and grommet system awnings when steel is the preferred material for the awning or canopy. When steel framing is the choice, All Cities Signs uses high-strength, lightweight mechanical tubing that is cold-formed to give high yield tensile strength values. Our tubing has a triple coating consisting of a hot-dip flow coat of uniform zinc galvanizing, a conversion coating and finally, a clear polymer coating.

Fabric Color and Patterns.....

There are thousands of different fabric colors and patterns to select from. A All Cities Signs sales representative will work with you to select a fabric appropriate to your awning and provide samples of the many fabrics available.


All awning fabrics have good abrasion resistance and will typically last between five to fifteen years, depending on fabric type, climate, and proper fabric care.

Fabric Warranty

All fabrics are warranted by the fabric manufacturer and directly by All Cities Signs. Fabric warranties generally cover colorfastness, rot and mildew. All Cities Signs will supply copies of fabric warranties upon request.

Fabric Types

Solution-dyed acrylic (Sometimes called Canvas)

Solution-dyed acrylic is a woven fabric that was introduced for awnings in the early 1960s. Acrylic is a generic name for mixtures of at least 85 percent of acrylonitrile. The other 15 percent consists of various additives, such as chemicals that provide UV light, mildew and water. The loose weave makes it highly breathable, so hot air and moisture will not be trapped.

Vinyl-coated polyester

These standard fabrics include opaque and translucent materials which are translucent depending on their color. Vinyl-laminated polyesters are resistant to UV light, mildew and water and are actually recommended for use in areas of sustained high humidity. They are easy to clean and flame retardant.

Acrylic-coated polyester

Coated with acrylic rather than vinyl, this fabric is translucent depending on its color and is resistant to UV light, mildew and water. The weight is 9.5 to 12.5 ounces per square yard. Vinyl-coated polyester/cotton. These are traditional awning fabrics. Because of their cotton base, these opaque fabrics are not recommended for use in areas of constant high humidity, although they are somewhat resistant to UV light, mildew and water.

All Cities Signs offers a variety of scallop details to meet your individual taste and needs.

Awning frames are anchored into building walls via a number of different types of supports.

The anchorage of an awning relates to its location, design and strength requirements between the awning structure and the building or other structure to which the awning is being attached.

The four major anchorage mechanisms are illustrated above, but custom applications may require that others be used.  We will analyze your particular foundation for anchorage and make suggestions for the best solution in your situation that maximizes security, strength, and attractiveness.

. Hand Painted/Stenciled

This method of producing graphics on fabric is recommended for non back-lit awnings. Paint can be brushed, rolled, sprayed, airbrushed, or silk screened on most fabric types. For back-lit applications, translucent inks can be applied with the same techniques. However, a uniform application of ink is required to achieve consistent light transmission. This can be difficult to accomplish with hand applied processes.

2. Pressure Sensitive (P.S.) Vinyl and Tedlar Films

This low cost adhesive backed film is available in hundreds of translucent and opaque colors. Pressure Sensitive Films can be computer cut and hand applied. To achieve proper adhesion, P.S. Films should be applied to P.S. Film receptive fabrics. They do not work well on woven acrylic or other canvas like fabrics, or vinyl fabrics that have not been coated with a protective finish. Since translucent films applied on colored fabric will not light properly, back-lit graphics require that P.S. Films be applied onto colored fabrics, the colored fabric must be of the eradicable type so that the fabric color can be removed from areas that are to receive P.S. Films. P.S. Films can also be used as both the background and graphic colors. However, application to large areas is difficult without costly laminating equipment.

3. Eradicated

This economical graphic production method for back-lit awnings, involves the use of solvent to remove the fabric surface color. While the eradication process is a low cost, efficient method of producing back-lit graphics, eradication cannot be performed on most awning fabrics. Instead, it requires specially formulated white vinyl substrate fabrics that have the color applied at the factory by coating the fabric surface with pigmented acrylic inks. These eradicable fabrics are more expensive than Permanent Factory Color Vinyl Fabrics of similar quality. Although eradication is a relatively inexpensive method for producing back-lit graphics, eradicable fabrics are one of the most expensive fabric types. Therefore, this method is most suitable for back-lit projects involving extensive graphics. Once color is removed from the graphic area, other graphic methods, such as the application of P.S. Film, can be used to decorate eradicated areas.

4. Radio Frequency (R.F.) Welding

Radio Frequency Welding is a relatively expensive graphic production method for back-lit graphics. However, R.F. Welding can be performed using most types of fabrics, and does not require the use of expensive eradicable fabrics. Therefore, R.F. Welding can be utilized in a cost effective manner on projects involving small amounts of back-lit graphic areas (relative to overall awning size). The R.F. Welding process involves cutting out the graphic shape from the background fabric, and replacing this area with a slightly larger piece of fabric of the same shape. The two pieces of fabric are then welded together with microwaves and pressure where they overlap.

5. Heat Transfer

This expensive graphic production method is performed on white vinyl fabric substrates to produce vivid, durable back-lit graphics. The entire graphic panel, including the background color, is transferred from ink coated paper to a white substrate, using heat and vacuum pressure. A clear protective top coating is then laminated to the surface using the same heat and vacuum process. The ability to apply protective coatings to the decorated fabric surfaces is a primary justification for the initial higher costs of Heat Transfer. It is recommended for back-lit projects requiring limited reproduction (see Factory Screen Printing for projects requiring multiple reproductions), and maximum longevity. In order to obtain the manufacturer’s warranty, the Heat Transfer process should always be performed using a single manufacturer’s materials (ink paper, substrate fabric, top coating).

6. Direct/Inlaid Digital Printing

Some fabric manufacturers produce custom screen printed back-lightable fabric panels. These panels include the back ground color and the desired graphic elements. The fabric can then be protected with a factory applied clear top coating. Factory Screen Printing is the most cost effective method of producing premium quality back-lightable fabric panels with intensive graphics. However, the normal minimum quantity required for this process is in the 2000 s.f. range. Factory Screen Printing is used most frequently by retail chain stores.

All Cities Signs can provide licensed engineering and calculations required to meet municipal building requirements.

Some municipalities require engineering calculation when permitting an awning, canopy or tension structure. Awnings can be designed to withstand wind, snow, rain, earthquakes and other forces of nature. Live loads, dead loads, drainage and ponding, seismic loads requirements are easily engineered into an awning, canopy or tension structure.

Since every awning project is custom designed when additional engineering is required the costs increase significantly. All Cities Signs can provide licensed engineering and calculations required to meet the municipal requirements.

An awning is an architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a rigid covering is attached.
A canopy is an architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the building to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over which a rigid covering is attached.
Retractable Awning
“A retractable awning is a cantilevered structure, entirely supported from a building, and constructed so that the awning cover and supporting frame retracts completely against the building, and in doing so, relieves the awning from wind, rain and snow pressure and/loads normally associated with extended fixed frame awning or canopies
Abrasion Resistance
Capacity of material to withstand wear due to friction, rubbing, or scraping.
Acceleration Stress
Additional stress placed on rope due to increasing the velocity of load.
Trademark owned by Monsanto co. for acrylic staple and filament fabric composed of 85% or more acrylonitrile, a liquid derivative of natural gas and air.
Generic term for manufactured fiber in which the fiber- forming substance is any long - chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units made in both filament and staple forms.
Adhesive anchors
Used on veneer brick surfaces and fasteners located close to corners, where the high pressures associated with expansion anchors could raise the risk of being pulled out. Adhesive anchors are bonded directly to the substrate by filling an oversized drilled hole, which contains the threaded fastener, with an epoxy adhesive.
Aluminum Pipe
Manufactured with the same dimensions as steel pipe, it weighs only one-third as much. On the other hand, it is only one-third as stiff as steel pipe. Temper is lost at welded joints.
Aluminum Tubing
This is available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and tempers, with an array of advantages and disadvantages in comparison to steel.
This involves the location, style and strength of connections from the awning or canopy to the building or to its foundations.
Anchor Line
Rope with a thimble spliced into one end for attaching an anchor.
A process used to improve corrosion resistance of aluminum and it’s alloys. The material is cleaned, then immersed in a bath of acids. The metal is the positive pole, or anode, in the acid bath. A current is applied and oxidation occurs. After this process is complete and the item rinsed, a second step or sealing treatment is applied. It is during this step that a chromate is applied, and various colors can be realized. This entire operation is also known as “two step anodizing.”
Motif or design made separately, then sewn or affixed on a cloth or garment.
Awning Cord
Small diameter cord used for tying down awning covers and for many utility purposes; most commonly a cotton braid with stretch resistant fiber core.
Basket Weave
Plain weave with two or more warp and filing threads interlaced to resemble a plaited basket. Has flat look, porosity, and looseness or “give”. Can be very heavy or lightweight and made of any fiber.
A post or pair of posts with or without a crossbar ( norman) for securing heavy lines; usually in the bow of a boat.
A round heavy post for securing lines; sometimes on a boat, but usually on a pier.
A bolt of fabric is usually rolled around a flat piece of cardboard or other inner core. It can also be flat folded which means it is actually reefed into a flat bundle. A bolt is usually 50 to 60 yards of fabric in our trade.
Bolt and the nut are manufactured to controlled specifications, and there is a wealth of data on the strength provided by such connections.
A narrow textile structure formed by plaiting several strands of yarn. Braid is usually used in trimming. Braids may also be made by plaiting several strips of fabric.
Breaking Strength
The measured load required to break a fabric or rope under tension; also called tensile strength.
Bull Rope
A large rope used in hauling, lifting or hoisting.

Cable Laid Rope
A rope made of three ropes of three strands each, all twisted into a cable.
Cable Twist
A yarn or rope construction in which each successive twist is in the opposite direction to the preceding twist. Defined as “ s - z- s” or “ z - s - z.”
Cadmium Plating
An electro plating process which protects iron and steel. Salt spray tests indicate cadium is superior to zinc in corrosion resistance.
A process of passing cloth between rollers ( or “ calendars”), usually under carefully controlled heat and pressure, to produce a variety of surface textures or effects in fabric.
Cotton, linen, or synthetic in heavy weights with an even firm weave, for sails and many industrial purposes. Awning stripe canvas has printed or woven strips.
Chalk and Mason Line
Small cords of various, fibers, braided or twisted, used in construction for marking straight lines; the cord must have a rough texture to hold chalk.
Fabrics that are coated are usually done so with a liquid or semi liquid product. Coatings can be urethanes, acrylics, PVC, neoprenes, and many other types of substances. Knife over roll: the material rolls past a knife that acts to spread a liquid substance across the width of the fabric. Extrusion: dry chemical mixes are heated and mixed through an extruder and then passed through a roller or die to flatten and spread the substance across the width of the fabric.
Coated Fabric
Fabrics coated, covered , or treated with various substances to make them stronger and/ or more resistant to weathering elements. Coating substances include rubber, resins, plastics, PVC, melamines, oil finishes, etc.
Co - Efficient of Friction
Gripping ability important for rope use on winches and in situations where slipperiness can be dangerous or cause problems. Gripping depends upon the friction or texture of the rope itself, its elasticity, creep ( or taffy effect, as in monofilament polypro), the area of contact and the ratio of rope size to bitt size.
An awning configuration characterized by a series of parallel bows in the shape of a convex curve. It produces a radius shape with flat ends.
The general term that covers all rope, cord, lines, and string.
Number size of a yarn. 2.) Number of ends and picks per inch of a weave, or their sum, as 200 count sheeting.
This describes the condition of scratch marks on the surface of fabrics. These can occur as a result of abrasion or folding. It is usually a topical condition and does not affect the fabric’s performance except from an aesthetic point of view.
To bend, kink, curl or wave a fiber to give it more loft.
Rubbing off of color as a result of improper dye, poor penetration, or fixation.
Cut-out lettering
Lettering or graphic elements that are cut out of a fabric and replaced from behind with letters or graphics of another material.
This describes the separation of the individual plies in a laminate. Laminates are typically made of two or more plies that are fused together under combinations of heat, pressure and adhesive. When a lamination comes apart, delamination has occurred.
Unit of weight indicating size of a fiber filament based on weight in grams of a standard stand of 9,000 meters. The higher the denier number, the heavier the yarn. Used in connection with silk, rayon, acetate, and most man - made fibers.
De- Sizing
A finishing process which removes the original sizing from warp yarns.
Die Casting
The forming of parts by forcing molten metal into metal molds. Castings made with this process can be made to very exacting tolerance. Zinc and aluminum are most commonly used.
A non - conductor or poor conductor of electricity. Polypropylene has excellent dielectric properties.
Di - Electric Welding
Certain fabrics with “thermo - plastic” properties, such as vinyl, can be welded together with various machines that use high frequency electrical impulse. Thermatron is a manufacturer of such machine. A high frequency electric impulse is sent through the fabrics by means of a bar or table and this mixes up the molecular structure of the thermo - plastic materials. When the bar or table is removed, the two fabrics are melted or welded together. This differs from Hot Air Welding, but the end result is the same.
Dimensional Stability
Fabrics can stretch and shrink in the warp, fill or bias directions, depending on the construction and/ or fibers employed. When a fabric is dimensionally stable, means that stretching and shrinking have been controlled to a certain degree.
The hot or cold stretching of fibers to increase orientation and reduce size. 2.) Process of repeated drafting of fiber slivers on a carding machine and doubling and redoubling of the silvers.

Electro Galvanized or Electro Plated
This is similar to Hot Dip Galvanized except the application process is different and the final appearance is smoother and brighter. Instead of dipping the metal into a hot zinc solution, the metals are charged with positive ions and put into a negative ion solution on the metal in a more uniform manner. An average plating thickness is .0002”.
Eradication is usually used for illuminated or back-lit awning. It involves eliminating with special chemicals, an existing color from a white vinyl fabric that has been pre-coated at the factory with eradicable inks.
Expansion anchors
Used to fasten awnings to concrete surfaces. They develop their essential strength by pressing hard against the side of the drilled hole in which they are set.
Extrusion Coated
When some coated vinyl fabrics are produced, the vinyl is applied in a semi - liquid (molten) state and calendared on by means of heavy cylinder. The vinyl is extruded in the form of a semi - liquid bar and pressed between large cylinders to spread it onto the fabric.
The fundamental unit that makes up a textile raw material such as cotton or woven acrylic.
Fire Proofed
A fabric or substance which has been treated so that it is absolutely impervious to flame, and will not, under any circumstances, support a flame. Erroneously used in reference to fire retardant goods.
Fire Retardant Finish
A finish rendering a cloth which will repel flame, or which will prevent the spreading of flame, or which will not support a flame. Usually tested for length of time it takes for a flaming portion of the cloth to extinguish itself.
Free On Board. Refers to where title to the goods passes from the seller to the buyer. There are many F.O.B. Terms, but the most common are "shipping point" and "destination". If it is F.O.B. Shipping point. This infers that the buyer owns the goods once the carrier picks them up and it infers that the buyer won't own the goods until they hit his dock and that the shipper will arrange for transportation. THIS DOES NOT SPECIFY WHO ULTIMATELY PAYS THE FREIGHT. For the example, you can have F.O.B destination terms and the freight goes collect.

Grab Tensile
This is a property of fabrics where a machine will try to pull the fabric apart in opposite direction in both the filling and warp directions. The resulting effort to do this is measured in pounds.
Guy Rope
A rope used for steadying or supporting something, such as a rope to strengthen an upright pole used to support a tent.

Hand Painting
A process whereby graphics are hand-painted directly on an awning
Heat Color-Transfer
A graphic process that utilizes heat and a vacuum applicator to adhere color to the fabric. Any number of colors can be applied simultaneously, as pigments and resins are embedded into the fabric.
High Strength Steel Tubing
This is a cold worked, thin wall steel tubing that is available in round, square and rectangular shapes. Popular sizes for the awning industry are under 2 inches. High-strength steel tubing normally is furnished with corrosion inhibiting surface treatments. It is also easily bent to designer shapes, relatively light weight and easily welded.
Hot Dip Galvanized
This refers to a finish that is the result of metal being dipped into a hot solution of zinc to add a protective, 'sacrificial' coating to the metal. Awning iron and some malleable fittings have typically been hot dip galvanized.
More formally, hydrostatic pressure. This is the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch, that it takes to pass water through a fabric.
Illuminated Awning
A lighting system placed behind the fabric structure causing the fabric to be illuminated.
Jacquard Weave
The type of weave to be seen in damasks, brocades, trapestries, and other complicated cloths. Made n a Jacquard loom which provides mechanisms to control the action of each warp yarn individually, if necessary.
This is the most traditional technique of attaching a fabric cover to an awning frame. Grommets are placed along the edge of the fabric cover. The cover is tied to the frame by lacing thin rope through the grommets.
Laminated fabrics are made of two or more plies fused together under a combination of heat, pressure and adhesives. Welblon, Herculite and Lam- A- Lite are examples of a laminated fabric.
Laminated fabric
A three-layer fabric, normally constructed of a plastic top and bottom layer, and an intermediate scrim layer.
Lateral Arm Awning
These awnings resemble typical traditional triangular structures except they rarely have end fabric panels and they include a manual or electric cranking system that allows the awning to be folded up or retracted against the wall
A load is anything that causes force to be exerted on a structural member.
Dead Load
This is the self-weight of the awning or canopy frame, fabric and hardware. This load must always be included with other design loads since it is always acting on the structure.
Wind Load
Basic wind load is a function of its wind speed. Basic wind pressure can be computed as the product of 0.00256 times the square of the wind speed (mph).
Snow Load
A load imposed on a structure from snowfall. Snow leads vary considerably from region to region.
Live Load
All changing loads exerted on a roof

Malleable Iron
A cast ferrous alloy consisting principally of iron and carbon which is made stronger and ductile by heat treatment (annealing). The heat treatment removes the brittleness normally associated with most cast iron and adds resistance to breakage under heavy impact or distortion.
Any fabric, knitted or woven, with an open texture, fine or coarse.
It is unlikely that any fabric can be rendered permanently mildew proof under all conditions. "Mildew Resistant" is a more proper term. Usually refers to a treatment on a cloth with various non- toxic chemical compounds that poison or discourage the growth of mold and fungi. Effectiveness is directly proportional to the type of fungicide and the quantity of fungicide contained in the finished cloth (to the point of maximum potency). The treatment may be durable or non-durable.
Generic name established by the Federal Trade Commission for "a manufactured fiber in which the fiber - forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85% but at least 35% by weight of acrylontrile units, except when it qualifies as rubber".
This is a measure that tries to explain how a fabric reacts when it tensioned and relaxed. It is used to expain things like snow and wind loads, elasticity, memory, stretch and shrinkage.
A single filament of manmade fiber, used as yarn.

Natural Fiber
Any organic fiber such as cotton, jute, manila, sisal, etc.
Neither woven, knitted, nor spun. A material made of fibers in a web or mat held together by bonding agent.
Any of a family of high strength, resilient synthetic materials, the long-chain molecule of which contains the recurring amide group CONH.
Painted Cloth
Cloths which have been finished by painting in solid colors or in assorted strips. The paint is generally applied to the surface of the cloth from fonts as the rolls of cloth pass under them. Used for awnings, outdoor furniture, umbrellas.
The process of applying color to fiber stock, yarn or fabric.
Plain Weave
One of the three basic weaves. In plain weave, each filling yarn passes successively over and under each warp yarn with each row alternating.
A synthetic fiber used for it's strength and resistance to ultraviolet deterioration. It does not have the stretch and elasticity of nylon and, as a result, will often last longer.
A synthetic material from which fibers are formed. Usually composed of large molecules (monomers) with each other.
This involves establishing a steep enough pitch, properly spaced bows or rafters, as well as maintaining a taut fabrics, so draining water or melting snow cannot cause the fabric to sage and collect water on the surface.
Pressure-Sensitive Graphics
Pressure-sensitive vinyl film is cut by hand or by computer to a desired design and then adhered in the proper register on the fabric as decoration.
The effective long-term stress for which an awning is designed; the load in the awning that results when the fabric is pulled tight on the frame. This stress exists in the awning fabric and acts on the frame, even when the awning is not acted upon by the service loads.
Pro Rata
Literally, "in proportion". In textiles, the term is uaually employed in relation to prices or weights of cloth.
Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer used for vinyl fabric.
Radio Frequency (RF) Sealing
RF sealing fuses two or more vinyl substrates using pressure and radio waves to create a seam or fabric joint.
Retractable Awning (See Lateral Arm Awning)
Right Hand Twist
An "S" twist or a twist that would be unlaid in a counter-clockwise direction.

Screen Printing
Graphic application method capable of printing great detail and color.
Open-constructed fabric used as a base material in coated and laminated fabrics.
Trademark owned by Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company for fluoride-based, stain-repellent, rain-repellent finish. Special formulations are made for leather.
Screen Prints
Similar to stencil work, except that a screen of fine silk, nylon, polyester or metal mesh is employed. Certain areas of the screen onto the fabric by a squeegee to form the pattern. Separate screens are used for each color in the pattern. More expensive than roller printing, but for limited yardage and more delicate designs, often more economical.
Fabric attachment that uses screws for fastening. The cover is stretched tightly over the frame and attached using self-tapping hexagonal screws.
An open mesh, plain weave cloth made with single or plied yarns. When made in a leno weave, it is similar to marquisette.
Seismic Load
These are earthquakes or earth tremor loads.
Force that causes a body to shift away from the acting force where it is not supported.
Silk Screen
Graphics accurately transferred to the awning through the use of screens cut specifically for the application. Ink is spread evenly over the top of the screen and “printed” onto the face of the fabric.
Spray-painting or air brushing
Hand painting made sophisticated as it can achieve color blending or shading plus sharper edges by spraying inks on fabric.
A fabric attachment that uses staples to attach the fabric to a frame system instead of screws. The fabric is stretched over a frame, then stapled to the frame.
Stainless Steel
As the name implies, this is a special steel alloy that is made more stainless than regular steel, due to higher concentrations of chromium and nickel. Note it does not say stain proof. There are many grades of stainless steel, the more common being #304 and #316. #304 is commonly used for wire forms, and #316 for investment castings (such as most Astrup's boat top hardware).
Snaps, hook and loop fasteners
A fabrics attachment that uses snaps or hook-or loop fasteners.
Staple on Extrusions
The fabric is stapled into “slot” built into specially designed framing. The slots are then covered with strips of vinyl trim.
The measure of the change in size of shape of a body under stress, compared to its original size or shape. It is usually measured as the change (in inches) per inch of length
Steel Pipe
This material can be characterized as a relatively thick, round section of mild steel, with manufactured foot lengths up to 24'-0". It is easily welded, bolted and threaded, and is adaptable to many shop environments. It is heavy and functional.
Steel Tubing
Steel tubing is similar to steel pipe, but available in a range of wall thickness and shapes, including round, square and rectangular. It is easily welded or bolted, and can be obtained in higher strengths than steel pipe.
The force-per-unit area
The surface to which an awning frame is attached. A substrate also is a base fabric.
Tongue Tear
This is a property of fabrics where a machine will tear a strip of fabric across the warp and filling. The resulting effort to this is measured in pounds.
Top Coating
The coating intended for the front, side or top of a fabric or membrane.
A large group of continuous filaments, such as nylon, polyester without any definite twist,

Ultimate Strength
The maximum strength under which an awning material is capable of sustaining a gradual and uniformly applied load.
Uv Resistance
Ability to withstand decay due to the damaging effect of the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
Threads that run through the length of a roll of fabric
The use of the term in relation to treated cotton ducks is prohibited by the "Fair Trade Practices Act" unless :the product shall be impervious to the passage of any water so long as the fabric may endure". Water Resistant is the proper designation for cloths treated to resist water penetration and leakage.
Water Repellent Finish
A finish either durable, applied to cloth which makes it relatively impervious to the effects of water repellent finishes does not close the pores of a cloth.
The configuration of threads running perpendicular to one another. A plain weave places weft thread over the warp thread in sequence, then reverses for the next row of threads.
A sturdy fabric woven in narrow widths for use where strength is required as for seat belts, head bands, etc.
Threads that run in the crosswise direction of woven fabric. Weft also is referred to as “fill”.
Weft Yarns
Same as filling yarns.
A strip of material seamed to a pocket opening as a finishing and a fabric strengthening device.
Welt Cord
A tape or covered cord sewn into a seam as a reinforcement or trimming.
The process that connects pieces of material by heating until molten and fused together.
A phenomenon that occurs when moisture accumulates at the edge of a fabric where substrate yarns may be exposed, or in sewn seams where threads come in contact with the substrate and moister is absorbed into a fabric.
The property of a fiber that allows moisture to move rapidly along the fiber surface and pass quickly through the fabric.
Wood lag screws
Screws which are tapered to a point and do not utilize nuts. Their strength is proportional to the hardness of the wood in which they are embedded. In many awning applications that require fastening to wood framing wood lag screws may be the best available option.
Working Load
(Or working strength) is the weight in pounds that is recommended for safe working conditions. It is applied to new rope in good condition with appropriate splices and only under normal service conditions. Where dynmic loading may occur, the recommended working load should be adjusted accordingly.
Woven Fabric
Fabric composed of at least two sets of yarns - one warp (longitudinal) and one filling (crosswise), laced at right angles to each other.
4 - Bar
This is the term commonly used to describe a stripe in awning fabric. This is the approximate number of colored 4 inch stripes across the width of 31 inch fabric. The stripes are not exactly 4 inches, they are more like 3.8 inches. Since many fabrics are wider than 31 inch today, this term is used to describe the width of the stripe. Also known as a classic stripe